In this article we will explore different ways to create iterators and iterable
values in Javascript, specifically **functions**, **iterators**, **iterables**
and **generators**.

JavaScript is a very flexible language and most often you can achieve the same goals in many different ways, iterators are no exception!

Wikipedia defines iterators as follows:

In computer programming, an iterator is an object that enables a programmer

to traverse a container, particularly lists. Various types of iterators are often provided via a container’s interface.

We will extend this definition even further as we will not focus on building iterators for pre-computed values like lists, but we will see how to iterate over generative sequences like the Fibonacci sequence.

Most likely you won’t be using the Fibonacci sequence in your day to day programming (unless you are interviewing for some company who wants to validate your knowledge of recursion 😆), but the idea of generating a sequence of values on demand (lazy evaluation) translates well to a lot of real-life scenarios like:

- traversing custom data structures
- consuming paginated APIs
- draining a queue
- processing long files line by line
- read all the records from a SQL table
- etc.

## The Fibonacci sequence

In case you have never seen the Fibonacci sequence before (or you don’t remember the exact definition), here is how it looks like:

`1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 ...`

Essentially, a number in the sequence is given by the sum of the previous 2 numbers.

In more formal mathematical terms, you can define the sequence as:

F

_{1}= F_{2}= 1

F_{n}= F_{(n-1)}+ F_{(n-2)}

Few things to notice:

- The sequence is infinite (it would be impossible to store it in a list without an upper limit).
- It is made by positive integers.

So, how do we write some JavaScript code that allows us to iterate over this sequence and calculate an arbitrary number of elements?

Well, there are many ways…

## Functions

In JavaScript, functions are first class citizens and most patterns can be modeled
with the use of only plain functions. This will become natural once you master
the concepts of *function scope*, *anonymous functions* and *nested functions*.

So, how can we build a fibonacci sequence by using only functions?

Here’s an example:

```
const genFib = (max = Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER) => {
// initialize default values in the scope
let n1 = 0
let n2 = 0
// returns an anonymous function that will return the next element
// every time that it is called
return () => {
// calculates the next value
const nextVal = n2 === 0 ? 1 : n1 + n2
// redefines n1 and n2 to match new values
const prevVal = n2
n2 = nextVal
n1 = prevVal
// if we reached the upper bound return null (iteration completed)
if (nextVal >= max) {
return null
}
// return the new value
return nextVal
}
}
```

I added some comments to make the code easy to understand, but let’s go through it once more.

`genFib`

is a function that accepts an optional parameter, which is the upper bound used to define when to stop computing elements in the sequence. JavaScript numbers starts to lose precision after`Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER`

, so this is a sensible default.- The first thing that happens in the function is initializing the function scope.
`n1`

and`n2`

are the only two values that we need to compute an element of the sequence. They represent the last 2 numbers computed. We set them to`0`

by default. - At this point the function returns an anonymous function. This function can be invoked an arbitrary number of times and every time it will compute and return a new element in the sequence, making sure the internal state is updated accordingly.

Notice that `genFib`

will initizalize a new isolated scope containing `n1`

and `n2`

.
These values will be accessible (and modifiable) only by the anonymous function returned
by `genFib`

. This means that you can generate multiple “iterators” and everyone of them
will be independent from each other.

To understand this even better let’s see an example on how a user would use this code:

```
const f = genFib(6) // limit the sequence to numbers below 6
f() // 1
f() // 1
f() // 2
f() // 3
f() // 5
f() // null
f() // null
f() // null
// or with a loop
// prints all the numbers of the sequence below MAX_SAFE_INTEGER
const f2 = genFib()
let current
while ((current = f2()) !== null) {
console.log(current)
}
```

## The Iterator protocol

In the previous example we came up with our own way to define how to iterate through
the elements (returned anonymous function) and how to understand whether the sequence
was over (return of `null`

).

**ECMAScript 2015** provides a standard and interoperable way to define iterator
objects. This is called **the Iterator protocol**.

In short, a JavaScript object is *an iterator* if it implements a `next()`

method with the following semantic:

`next()`

does not accept any argument.`next()`

has to return an object with 2 properties:`done`

and`value`

.`done`

is a boolean and it will be set to`true`

if and only if there are no more elements in the sequence.`value`

will contain the actual value as computed in the last iteration (could be`undefined`

when`done`

is`true`

).

Ok, now let’s rewrite our Fibonacci sequence to implement the Iterator protocol:

```
const genFibIterator = (max = Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER) => {
let n1 = 0
let n2 = 0
// this time we return an iterator object (rather than a function)
return {
// the logic needed to compute the next element is inside the `next` method
next: () => {
// calculates the next value
let nextVal = n2 === 0 ? 1 : n1 + n2
// redefines n1 and n2 to match new values
const prevVal = n2
n2 = nextVal
n1 = prevVal
// if we reached the upper bound (iteration completed)
// set done to true and nextVal to undefined
let done = false
if (nextVal >= max) {
nextVal = undefined
done = true
}
// return the iteration object as for the iteration protocol
return { value: nextVal, done }
}
}
}
```

The comments in the code should help you to understand the new logic.

Let’s see how to use our new Fibonacci iterator implementation:

```
const it = genFibIterator(6) // { next: [Function: next] }
it.next() // { value: 1, done: false }
it.next() // { value: 1, done: false }
it.next() // { value: 2, done: false }
it.next() // { value: 3, done: false }
it.next() // { value: 5, done: false }
it.next() // { done: true }
// or
const it2 = genFibIterator(6)
let result = it2.next()
while (!result.done) {
console.log(result.value)
result = it2.next()
}
// 1
// 1
// 2
// 3
// 5
```

## The Iterable protocol

In the previous section we saw how to define **Iterator objects** that conform
the Iterator protocol. In reality, we might want to express the concept of
“iterability” in a more generic fashion, so that, given any object, we can tell if
such object is iterable or not.

For this reason, ECMAScript 2015 defines also the **Iterable protocol**.

An object is said to be *iterable* if it exposes a property called `Symbol.iterator`

,
which is a function that returns an *iterator* object.

You can introspectively check if an object is *iterable* with some code like this:

```
function isIterable(obj) {
return Boolean(obj) && typeof obj[Symbol.iterator] === 'function'
}
```

ECMAScript 2015 also provides a new `for`

construct (`for...of`

) that allows to
easily iterate over the elements of an iterable object:

```
for (let current of someIterable) {
console.log(current)
}
```

Iterable objects can also be used in combination with the **spread operator** to
eagerly load all the values and store them into an array:

`const allValues = [...someIterable]`

Ok, now let’s rewrite our Fibonacci sequence to implement the Iterable protocol:

```
const genFibIterable = (max = Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER) => {
let n1 = 0
let n2 = 0
// returns an iterable object
return {
[Symbol.iterator] () {
// returns an iterator
return {
next() {
let nextVal = n2 === 0 ? 1 : n1 + n2
const prevVal = n2
n2 = nextVal
n1 = prevVal
let done = false
if (nextVal >= max) {
nextVal = undefined
done = true
}
return { value: nextVal, done }
}
}
}
}
}
```

What we did here is to just move the implementation of the iterator seen in the
previous section into the `Symbol.iterator`

function.

Note that it is possible to come up with an implementation that can satisfy the Iterator and the Iterable protocols at the same time :

```
const genFib = (max = Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER) => {
let n1 = 0
let n2 = 0
return {
// this satisfies the Iterator protocol
next: () => {
let nextVal = n2 === 0 ? 1 : n1 + n2
const prevVal = n2
n2 = nextVal
n1 = prevVal
let done = false
if (nextVal >= max) {
nextVal = undefined
done = true
}
return { value: nextVal, done }
},
// this satisfies the Iterable protocol
[Symbol.iterator] () {
// returns `this` because the object itself is an iterator
return this
}
}
}
```

The comments in the code should help you to understand the logic in these 2 implementations.

With this new approaches you can generate numbers from the Fibonacci sequence as follows:

```
// prints all the numbers in the sequence until MAX_SAFE_INTEGER
const f = genFibIterable()
for (let n of f) {
console.log(n)
}
// creates an array with all the Fibonacci numbers lower than 17
const f2 = genFibIterable(17)
const lowerThan17 = [...f2] // [ 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 ]
```

If at this point you are still struggling to see the logical difference between
an *iterator* and an *iterable* object you can see it this way:

- An
*iterable*is an object on which you can iterate over. - An
*iterator*is a cursor object that allows you to iterate over an*iterable*.

## Generators

Another great addition coming from ECMAScript 2015 to JavaScript are **Generators**.
More specifically, ECMAScript 2015 defines **Generator functions** and **Generator objects**.

A

`function*`

declaration (function keyword followed by an asterisk) defines

a *Generator function*, which returns a *Generator object*.

Generators are functions which can be exited and later re-entered. Their context (variable bindings) will be saved across re-entrances.

To simplify this concept a bit, you can see generator functions as functions that
can “return” (or ”*yield*”) multiple times.

Let’s explore the generator syntax with a simple example:

```
// generator function
function* countTo3() {
yield 1
yield 2
return 3
}
```

In this example we are defining a `counter`

that generates numbers from 1 to 3.
We can use it as follows:

```
// c is a generator object
const c = countTo3()
c.next() // { value: 1, done: false }
c.next() // { value: 2, done: false }
c.next() // { value: 3, done: true }
c.next() // { done: true }
c.next() // { done: true }
// ...
```

So, the way a generator works is the following:

- When you invoke a
*generator function*, a*generator object*is returned. - Generator objects have a
`next()`

method. - When you invoke the
`next()`

method of a*generator object*the code of the generator will be executed until the first`yield`

(or`return`

) is encountered. - If a
`yield`

was found, the code is stopped and the yielded value will be passed to the invoking context though an object with the following shape:`{ value: <yieldedValue>, done: false }`

. - The next time
`next()`

is invoked, the execution will be resumed from the point where it was initially suspended until a new`yield`

or`return`

is found. - If a
`return`

statement is found (or the function completes), the object returned will look like:`{ value: <returnedValue>, done: true }`

(notice the`done`

now set to`true`

). - Once the generator has completed, consecutive calls to
`next()`

will always produce`{ done: true }`

.

Of course, the reason why we are exploring this topic is because we can implement our Fibonacci sequence as a generator:

```
function* Fib (max = Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER) {
// initialize the state variables
let n1 = 0
let n2 = 0
// we can now pre-initialize nextVal to 1 as part of the state
let nextVal = 1
// loop until we exceed the max number
while (nextVal <= max) {
// yields the current value
yield nextVal
// shifts nextVal -> n2 and n2 -> n1
const prevVal = n2
n2 = nextVal
n1 = prevVal
// calculates the next value
nextVal = n1 + n2
}
}
```

The comments in the code should help you with understanding this implementation.

You can immediately notice that since we don’t have to deal with a *nested function*,
the implementation seems easier to read, or at least it might feel easier to read
the code and understand the actual execution flow.

For this reason, you might prefer to use generators over plain functions in this kind of scenarios.

We can use our new generator-based Fibonacci sequence as in this example:

```
const fib = Fib(6)
fib.next() // { value: 1, done: false }
fib.next() // { value: 1, done: false }
fib.next() // { value: 2, done: false }
fib.next() // { value: 3, done: false }
fib.next() // { value: 5, done: false }
fib.next() // { done: true }
// or
const fib2 = Fib(6)
let result = fib2.next()
while (!result.done) {
console.log(result.value)
result = fib2.next()
}
// 1
// 1
// 2
// 3
// 5
```

At this point you might be wandering:

Is a generator object an iterator or an iterable?

Well, it turns out that **a generator object is both an iterator and iterable**!

So you can also use our latest implementation with the `for...of`

and the *spread*
syntax:

```
const fib = Fib(6)
for (let current of fib) {
console.log(current)
}
// 1
// 1
// 2
// 3
// 5
// or
const fib2 = Fib(6)
[...fib2] // [ 1 1 2 3 5 ]
```

Finally, since generators are *iterators*, you can use them as `Symbol.iterator`

property of an *iterable object*. This could help you to define the iteration logic
in a more elegant and concise way, taking advantage of the `yield`

keyword.

To some extent, you can see generators as a syntactic sugar to define iterable objects.

## Conclusion

In this article we learned about different ways to generate dynamic sequences using plain functions, iterators, iterables and generators.

Notice that these approaches are ideal when the operation needed to generate the next element is synchronous (it doesn’t require external resources to be loaded asynchronously).

When you have to iterate over values that become available asynchronously you
have to rely on different patterns such as
**event emitters**,
**streams**, or
**async iterators**.

Also, notice that generators have some interesting advanced features not covered
in this article, like the opportunity to pass new values in the context every
time `.next()`

is called or to throw exceptions, so make sure you checkout
the generators documentation.

If you liked this article and you are interested in similar content, be sure
to checkout my book **Node.js Design Patterns**.

This book contains more than 500 pages, filled with more than 100 examples on Node.js (and JavaScript) design patterns. I am sure you won’t be disappointed!

Have fun! :)